Combatting Relational Aggression Children can be taught to assert themselves effectively. As a caring adult, you can:
* Demonstrate assertive behavior. Teach children to ask for things directly and respond directly to each other. It is OK to say "no" to an unacceptable demand. Let children role-play with puppets or dolls.
* Teach social skills. Suggest ways for children to compromise or to express their feelings in a positive way. Show children how to resolve problems firmly and fairly.
* Identify potential friendship problems and correct them. Teach children how to ignore routine teasing. Not all provocative behavior must be acknowledged. Teach children the value of making new friends.
* Teach common courtesy skills.
* Teach children to ask nicely and to respond appropriately to polite requests.
* Identify ways to respond to bullies. Help children identify acts of aggression, bossiness or discrimination. Encourage children not to give up objects or territory to bullies. This discourages bullying behavior.
* Demonstrate the rewards of personal achievement. Teach children to trust and value their own feelings. They will be more likely to resist peer pressure, respect warm and caring adults, and be successful in achieving their personal goals.
Internet citation: SAMHSA
For additonal information or for help in this area contact Youth & Family 405.275.3340
Bullying | Safe Schools | Self Mutilitation
| Human Trafficking | Did you know?
is Relational Aggression?
Create a school safety advisory group. This advisory group should include representatives from all constituencies, especially law enforcers, judges, lawyers, health and human services professionals, parents and the media. Individuals should be able to articulate the desires of the groups they represent and relate advisory group actions back to their peers. Select members who can be relied upon for consistent, continued support and who seek solutions rather than recognition and status from their participation. Recruit group members with special qualifications, such as policy-making authority, access to the media, ability to mobilize volunteers or expertise in raising funds.
Pair law enforcers with high-risk youths, similar to the "Big Brother" program. Such relationships can be an important step in changing delinquent behavior patterns.
Internet citation: National School Safety Center
It is estimated that one in every 100 individuals in the United States, or more than 2.5 million people, are self-mutilators. Girls are four times more likely to engage in self-harm than boys, with girls between the ages of 16 and 25 at highest risk, although many girls begin cutting in middle school (ages 12 or 13). At risk individuals also include those who have underlying psychiatric disorders. Up to half of individuals who are self-mutilators were sexually abused as children.
Internet citation: Cutter Demographics
Stereotypical self-mutilation has been seen in the Lesch-Nyhan, deLange, and Tourette's syndrome which has spurred interest in a biological model.
Biological Model 1:
Recent evidence suggests the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in self-mutilation.
Biological Model 2:
In addition to dopamine, endogenous opioids have also been linked to self-mutilation. The biological reinforcement theory suggests that the pain from self-mutilation may cause the production of endorphins (endogenous opioids) that reduce dysphoria. A cycle is formed in which the habitual self-mutilator will hurt themselves in order to feel better.
Biological Model 3:
A third biological explanation suggests that individuals may mutilate themselves in order to supply sensory stimulation.
Internet citation: Types of Motivation
The content of this article may be very triggering if you engage in self mutilation; please consider this carefully before reading on.
Self mutilation is very difficult to understand from the prospective of people who have never experienced the behavior themselves. For family members or friends of someone who self mutilates, it is terrifying, confusing, and frustrating.
Internet citation: What is Self Mutilation and Why Does It Happen?
Students are more apt to be victims of serious violent crime away from school than at or on the way to school.
Internet citation: OJJDP
How Do People Get Trapped Into Sex or Labor Trafficking?
No one signs up to become a slave. Traffickers frequently recruit victims through fraudulent advertisements promising legitimate jobs as hostesses, domestics, or work in the agricultural industry. Trafficking victims of all kinds come from rural, suburban, and urban settings.
There are tell-tale signs when commercial establishments are holding people against their will.
Visible Indicators of Human Trafficking may include:
Heavy security at the commercial establishment including barred windows, locked doors, isolated location, electronic surveillance. Women are never seen leaving the premises unless escorted.
Victims live at the same premises as the brothel or work site or are driven between quarters and work with a guard nearby. For labor trafficking, victims are often prohibited from leaving the work site, which may look like a guarded compound from the outside.
Victims are kept under surveillance when taken to a doctor, hospital or clinic for treatment; trafficker may act as a translator.
High foot traffic especially for brothels where there may be trafficked women indicated often by a stream of men arriving and leaving the premises.
Trafficking victims are kept in bondage through a combination of fear, intimidation, abuse, and psychological controls. While each victim will have a different experience, they share common threads that may signify a life of indentured servitude.
Trafficking victims live a life marked by abuse, betrayal of their basic human rights, and control under their trafficker. The following indicators in and of themselves may not be enough to meet the legal standard for trafficking, but they indicate that a victim is controlled by someone else and, accordingly, the situation should be further investigated.
What Is the Profile of a Human Trafficking Victim?
Most trafficking victims will not readily volunteer information about their status because of fear and abuse they've suffered at the hands of their trafficker. They may also be reluctant to come forward with information from despair, discouragement, and a sense that there are no viable options to escape their situation. Even if pressed, they may not identify themselves as someone held in bondage for fear of retribution to themselves or family members. However, there are indicators that often point to a person held in a slavery condition.
Health Characteristics of a Trafficked Person. Trafficked individuals may be treated as disposable possessions without much attention given to their mental or physical health. Accordingly, some of the health problems that may be evident in a victim include:
Malnutrition, dehydration or poor personal hygiene
Sexually transmitted diseases
Signs of rape or sexual abuse
Bruising, broken bones, or other signs of untreated medical problems
Critical illnesses including diabetes, cancer or heart disease; and Post-traumatic stress or psychological disorders
Internet citation: How Can I Recognize Human Trafficking Victims?
Oklahoma's State reptile is the Mountain Boomer or Collared Lizard.