11 to 12 year old students reported bullying others more than younger (9 10 year old) and older (13 to 14 year old) students.
Internet citation: Bullying.org
For additonal information or for help in this area contact Youth & Family 405.275.3340
Bullying | Safe Schools | Self Mutilitation
| Human Trafficking | Did you know?
is Relational Aggression?
Plan a community beautification campaign for the school and neighborhood using students as a work crew. Graffiti and vandalized areas should be priorities. With professional guidance, students can help maintain campuses, parks and other community areas. Beautification projects enhance the appearance of the community and develop a strong sense of pride among participants.
Just as communities work together to prevent crime with "Neighborhood Watch" programs, local residents can mobilize to make schools safer. Such mobilization efforts target community residents without school-aged children. It is essential to communicate to this critical group that they do have direct as well as indirect relationships to local schools. Public opinion polls suggest that the more citizens are involved in schools, the more likely people are to have a favorable opinion of schools.
Hold a series of briefings for community residents to inform them about school problems directly affecting the neighborhood. Property values decline when neighborhood schools have poor reputations and surrounding areas suffer from vandalism, crime by truants and drug trafficking. Form "School Watch" programs in which neighbors around the school are asked to watch for and report suspicious activities to school or law enforcement officials. Post signs on the school grounds: "This school is protected by a neighborhood School Watch." Solicit advice from community residents and conduct follow-up meetings to keep community representatives updated on progress.
Internet citation: National School Safety Center
It is estimated that one in every 100 individuals in the United States, or more than 2.5 million people, are self-mutilators. Girls are four times more likely to engage in self-harm than boys, with girls between the ages of 16 and 25 at highest risk, although many girls begin cutting in middle school (ages 12 or 13). At risk individuals also include those who have underlying psychiatric disorders. Up to half of individuals who are self-mutilators were sexually abused as children.
Internet citation: Cutter Demographics
Stereotypical self-mutilation has been seen in the Lesch-Nyhan, deLange, and Tourette's syndrome which has spurred interest in a biological model.
Biological Model 1:
Recent evidence suggests the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in self-mutilation.
Biological Model 2:
In addition to dopamine, endogenous opioids have also been linked to self-mutilation. The biological reinforcement theory suggests that the pain from self-mutilation may cause the production of endorphins (endogenous opioids) that reduce dysphoria. A cycle is formed in which the habitual self-mutilator will hurt themselves in order to feel better.
Biological Model 3:
A third biological explanation suggests that individuals may mutilate themselves in order to supply sensory stimulation.
Internet citation: Types of Motivation
The content of this article may be very triggering if you engage in self mutilation; please consider this carefully before reading on.
Self mutilation is very difficult to understand from the prospective of people who have never experienced the behavior themselves. For family members or friends of someone who self mutilates, it is terrifying, confusing, and frustrating.
Internet citation: What is Self Mutilation and Why Does It Happen?
On any given day in 2000, juvenile courts handled 4,500 delinquency cases. In comparison, in 1960 approximately 1,100 delinquency cases were processed daily.
Internet citation: OJJDP
Human trafficking -- also known as trafficking in persons -- is believed to be one of the fastest-growing criminal industries in the world. Human trafficking involves the recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining of people for the purpose of various forms of exploitation. Victims are often controlled through force, fraud, or coercion. While it is commonly thought that human trafficking is the smuggling or movement of people, in fact, the crime involves exploitation and control. Victims of human trafficking can be men or women, adults or children, and U.S. citizens or foreign-born immigrants.
Human trafficking can be difficult to recognize. Human trafficking victims may be forced to work as prostitutes, domestic workers, landscapers, in restaurants and bars, as forced panhandlers, in cleaning and janitorial jobs, in nail salons, or in other roles.
Human trafficking is a complex and often misunderstood issue requiring detailed explanation. Information about human trafficking is often inaccurate, incomplete, and confusing.
Victims are often kept out of sight and are afraid to reach out for help. According to the Polaris Project, the following may be signs that someone may be a victim of trafficking:
Workers who have had their ID, passport, or documents taken away
Workers who show signs of physical and/or sexual abuse, physical restraint, confinement, or torture
Workers who show signs of emotional abuse
Workers who are being threatened by or are in debt to their boss
Workers who are under 18 and are involved in the commercial sex industry
Workers who are not free to leave or come and go from their place of work as they wish
Workers who don't seem to be receiving payment
If you think you see a human trafficking situation, you should ask the potential victim the following questions. These questions were compiled by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Can you leave your job or situation if you want?
Can you come and go as you please?
Have you been threatened if you try to leave?
Have you been physically harmed in any way?
What are your working or living conditions like?
Where do you sleep and eat?
Do you sleep in a bed, on a cot, or on the floor?
Have you ever been deprived of food, water, sleep, or medical care?
Do you have to ask permission to eat, sleep, or go to the bathroom?
Are there locks on your doors and windows so you cannot get out?
Has anyone threatened your family?
Has your identification or documentation been taken from you?
Is anyone forcing you to do anything that you do not want to do?
If you are a victim of human trafficking or would like to report a tip regarding suspected human trafficking, call 911 in an emergency. If you have information regarding human trafficking which is not an emergency, would like more information about human trafficking or would like to learn about how you can help, call 311. If you live outside of New York City, call the toll-free National Hotline at 1-888-3737-888.
Internet citation: Trafficking in Persons
The term Okie came from the 1930's Dust Bowl era when many farmers were forced to move West migrant laborers.